Adult Derived Regenerative Cells (ADRC)
Repair and regeneration of adult human organs and tissues after injury or disease requires the presence of adult regenerative cells in these tissues. Such cells derived from adipose (fat) tissue are referred to as Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells (ADRCs).
ADRCs are a mixed population of cells including adult stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. ADRCs are thought to promote healing of scarred or injured tissue. While the exact mechanisms continue to be investigated, there is scientific evidence that ADRCs counteract inflammation, stimulate new blood vessel formation, prevent cell death, and secrete substances that encourage repair and regeneration.
The acromioclavicular joint, or AC joint, is a joint at the top of the shoulder. It is the junction between the acromion (part of the scapula that forms the highest point of the shoulder) and the clavicle.
Adipose (Fat) Tissue
Adipose tissue, or fat, is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body.
Autotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, or tissues from one part of the body to another in the same person (auto- = “self-“). The autologous tissue (also called autogenous,autogeneic, or autogenic tissue) transplanted by such a procedure is called an autograft or autotransplant.
Blood plasma is the pale-yellow liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension. It makes up about 55% of the body’s total blood volume. It is mostly water (up to 95% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins (6-8%) .
Cytokines serve as molecular messengers between cells. With regard to arthritis, cytokines regulate various inflammatory responses. Cytokines interact with cells of the immune system in order to regulate the body’s response to disease and infection.
Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial molecules from granuel found inside some white blood cells. The main purpose is to destroy invading microorganisms.
Deployment (as it relates to the injection and infusion)
Deployment is the process of putting the stem cells into your body. Both injections into the joint under ultrasound guidance and intravenous (IV) methods are used.
Abnormality or impairment in the function of a specified bodily organ or system.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation. These are added to the stem cells to help them to their job. These factors come from your own body (PRP) or from placental tissue called Amniofix. (create link to amniofix.com)
Shoulder impingement syndrome is a common cause of shoulder pain. It occurs when there is impingement of tendons or bursa in the shoulder from bones of the shoulder. Overhead activity of the shoulder, especially repeated activity, is a risk factor for shoulder impingement syndrome.
Joint Replacement Surgery
The replacing of arthritic joints with metal and plastic. Common joint replaced are knees, hips and shoulders. Stem cell may prevent or delay the need for a joint replacement.
A part of the scapula, called the glenoid, makes up the socket of the shoulder. The glenoid is very shallow and flat. The labrum is a rim of soft tissue that makes the socket more like a cup. The labrum turns the flat surface of the glenoid into a deeper socket that molds to fit the head of the humerus. Labral tears are often caused by a direct injury to the shoulder, such as falling on an outstretched hand. The labrum can also become torn from the wear and tear of activity, a condition called overuse. An injured labrum can lead to shoulder instability. The extra motion of the humerus within the socket causes additional damage to the labrum. An extremely unstable shoulder may slip or dislocate. This can also cause the labrum to tear.
A short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint. When damaged they can take 3 to 6 months to heal because they don’t have a good blood supply. Occasionally they never heal and can lead to chronic pain and laxity.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells traditionally found in the bone marrow. However, mesenchymal stem cells can also be isolated from other tissues including cord blood, and fat. Multipotent stem cells, MSCs differentiate to form adipocytes, cartilage, bone, tendons, muscle, and skin.
Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)
Platelet activation plays a key role in the process of wound and soft tissue healing. The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP), a portion of the patient’s own blood having a platelet concentration above baseline, to promote healing of injured tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joints, can be applied to various musculoskeletal problems. This is often combined with the stem cells to provide nutrients and help them differentiate into new tissues. It can be obtained from your own blood of from a bottle (placental tissue)
Also called “thrombocytes”, are blood cells whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding
Is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its “target” cell. The most important difference between stem cells and progenitor cells is that stem cells can replicate indefinitely, whereas progenitor cells can divide only a limited number of times.
The term “regenerative” describes processes that restore, renew or revitalize their own sources of energy and materials, creating sustainable systems that integrate the needs of society with the integrity of nature.
A branch of tissue and molecular biology, which deals with the “process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function”
The use of SVF or stem cells to restore normal function to joints, ligaments or tendons.
Rejuvenation is the reversal of aging, namely repair of the damage that is associated with aging or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue.
Rotator Cuff Tears/tendonitis
Your arm is kept in your shoulder socket by your rotator cuff. The rotator cuff is a network of four muscles that come together as tendons to form a covering around the head of the humerus. The rotator cuff attaches the humerus to the shoulder blade and helps to lift and rotate your arm.
There is a lubricating sac called a bursa between the rotator cuff and the bone on top of your shoulder (acromion). The bursa allows the rotator cuff tendons to glide freely when you move your arm. When the rotator cuff tendons are injured or damaged, this bursa can also become inflamed and painful (tendonitis).
When one or more of the rotator cuff tendons is torn, the tendon no longer fully attaches to the head of the humerus. Most tears occur in the supraspinatus muscle and tendon, but other parts of the rotator cuff may also be involved.
In many cases, torn tendons begin by fraying. As the damage progresses, the tendon can completely tear, sometimes with lifting a heavy object.
Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF)
Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF) is obtained from liposuction of excess adipose tissue. The Lipoaspirate, a disposable byproduct of liposuction, contains a large population of stem cells called adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), that shares a number of similarities with the bone marrow stromal cells, including the multilineage differentiation capacity.
A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments and fascia; all three are made of collagen. Ligaments join one bone to another bone; fasciae connect muscles to other muscles. Tendons and muscles work together to move bones.
The use of an ultrasound machine to guide the needle into the joint or near the tendon or ligament that is being treated.